S. O. Proksch, W. Lowe, and S. Soroka ‘Multilingual sentiment analysis:
A new approach to measuring conflict in parliamentary speeches’. Paper prepared for the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, 2016.

N. Baerg and W. Lowe. A textual Taylor Rule: Estimating central bank preferences combining topic and scaling methods. [Under review]

W. Lowe. Scaling things we can count (formerly ‘There’s (basically) only one way to do: Some unifying theory for text scaling models’). Paper prepared for the American Political Science Association meeting September 2013, Chicago, and endlessly revised.

W. Lowe. Measurement Models for Event Data. Paper prepared for the European Political Science Association meeting June 2013, Barcelona.


Y. Theocharis and W. Lowe (2015) Does Facebook increase political participation? Evidence from a field experiment. Information, Communication and Society.

J.-H. Meyer-Sahling, W. Lowe, and C. van Stolk (2015) Silent professionalization: EU integration and the professional socialization of public officials in Central and Eastern Europe. European Union Politics. → data.

Y. Theocharis, W. Lowe, J. W. van Deth, and G. M. García-Albacete. (2014) Using Twitter to mobilise protest action: Transnational online mobilisation patterns and action repertoires in the Occupy Wall Street, Indignados and Aganaktismenoi movements. Information, Communication and Society. → preprint

W. Lowe and K. R. Benoit (2013) Validating estimates of latent traits from textual data using human judgment as a benchmarkPolitical Analysis. 12(3): 298-313 → data, video from NCRM (if you like that kind of thing).

S. C. Carey, N. J. Mitchell, W. Lowe (2013) States, the security sector, and the monopoly on violence: A new database on pro-government militiasJournal of Peace Research 50(2): 249-258 → datapreprint

K. Benoit, M. Laver, W. Lowe, and S. Mikhaylov (2012) How to scale coded text units without bias: A response to GemenisElectoral Studies 31(3): 605-608.

W. Lowe, K. Benoit, S. Mikhaylov, and M. Laver (2011) Scaling policy positions from coded units of political texts. Legislative Studies Quarterly 36(1): 123-155. → data

J. Sullivan and W. Lowe (2010) Chen Shui-bian: On independenceChina Quarterly 203: 619-638.

W. Lowe (2008) Understanding WordscoresPolitical Analysis 16(4): 356-371. → data

E. Jenne, S. Saideman, W. Lowe (2007) Secessionism as a bargaining postureJournal of Peace Research 44(5): 537-556. → data

W. Lowe (2004) Content analysis and its place in the (methodological) scheme of thingsQualitative Methods 2(1): 25-27.

G. King and W. Lowe (2003) An automated information extraction tool for international conflict data with performance as good as human coders: A rare events evaluation design’International Organization 57: 617-642. → data

J. Bryson and W. Lowe (1997) Commentary on D. Ballard, M. M. Hayhoe, P. K. Pook and R. P. N. Rao, Deictic codes for the embodiment of cognitionBehavioral and Brain Sciences 20:743-744.


J. Bullinaria and W. Lowe, editors (2002) Connectionist Models of Cognition and Perception, World Scientific


J.-H. Meyer-Sahling, W. Lowe, C. van Stolk (2012) ‘Attitudes of public officials towards models of bureaucracy in Central and Eastern Europe’ In Executive Politics in Times of Crisis, M. Lodge and K. Wegrich (Eds.), Palgrave Macmillan. pp.99-117.

W. Lowe (2010) Identifying your accompanist in Close Engagements with Artificial Companions, Y. Wilks (Ed.), Benjamins. pp.95-99

W. Lowe (2006) ‘New methods for conflict data’ in Programming for Peace: Computer-Aided Methods for International Conflict Resolution and Prevention, R. Trappl (Ed.) Springer pp.321-334

W. Lowe (2003) Uncertainty and Sentence completion test in M. S. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman and T. F. Liao (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Research Methods in the Social Sciences, Sage.

W. Lowe (2003) ‘Rare Events Research’. Encyclopedia of Social Measurement, Elsevier.

Peer-reviewed Conference Papers

(Not the ordinary unreviewed “send us an abstract an we’ll decide” kind like APSA, MPSA, EPSA etc.)

N. R. Baerg, W. Lowe, S. Ponzetto, H. Stuckenschmidt, and C. Zirn. (2014). Estimating central bank preferences. Paper presented at Workshop on Language Technologies and  Computational Social Science, ACL 2014, Baltimore, Maryland.

W. Lowe, O. Bekou, and E. Hunter (2008) ‘Markup and metadata in international criminal law’. eSocial Science Conference, Manchester.

J. Dowdall, W. Lowe, J. Ellman, F. Rinaldi and M. Hess (2004) The role of multiword terminology in knowledge management in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation.

W. Lowe and G. King (2003) Some statistical methods for evaluating information extraction systems in Proceedings of the Tenth Conference of the European Association for Computational Linguistics pp.19-26.

W. Lowe (2001) Towards a theory of semantic space in J. D. Moore and K. Stenning (Eds.) Proceedings of the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society LEA pp.576-581

J. Bryson, W. Lowe and L. A. Stein (2000) ‘Hypothesis testing for complex agents’ in A. M. Meystel and E. R. Messina (Eds.) Proceedings of NIST Workshop on Performance Metrics for Intelligent Systems National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 970. pp.233-240.

W. Lowe (2000) What is the dimensionality of human semantic space? in R. M. French and J. P. Sougné (Eds.) Proceedings of the 6th Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop Springer pp.303-311.

W. Lowe and S. McDonald (2000) The direct route: Mediated priming in semantic space in L. R. Gleitman and J. K. Joshi (Eds.) Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society LEA pp.806-811.

S. McDonald and W. Lowe (1998) Modelling functional priming and the Associative boost in M. A. Gernsbacher and S. J. Derry (Eds.) Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society LEA pp.675-680

W. Lowe (1997) Meaning and the mental lexicon in M. E. Pollack (Ed.) Proceedings of the 15th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Morgan Kaufmann pp.1092-1097. (7M bitmapped, sorry)

W. Lowe (1997) ‘Semantic representation and priming in a self-organizing lexicon’ in J. A. Bullinaria, G. Houghton and D. W. Glasspool (Eds.) Proceedings of the 4th Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop Springer pp.227-239


W. Lowe (2003) Content Analysis Software: A Review Technical Report for the Identity Project, Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University.

R. C. Shillcock, S. McDonald, P. Hipwell and W. Lowe (1998) Distinctiveness of spoken word context predicts lexical decision time Centre for Cognitive Science Research Paper EUCCS-RP-1998-4

If you think ‘word embeddings’ are new and cool, here’s thesis on them from back when bootcut jeans were a thing:

W. Lowe (2001) Topographic Maps of Semantic Space PhD Thesis, Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation, Division of Informatics, University of Edinburgh.